Sunday, October 25, 2009

Urgent Action Needed - Baby Chimpanzee on Desperate Houswives

Tonight on ABC - Desperate Housewives episode will be featuring a baby chimpanzee!!

Here is the episode trailer:

http://www.youtube.com/user/TheHousewives000#p/a

Please, let ABC know that is not acceptable and that your are dissapointed that they have used a primate in their show, and that you will not be supporting their network if action is not taken.

Write to ABC:

http://abc.go.com/site/contact-us

Wednesday, October 21, 2009

Urgent Action Needed-TLC show My Baby Monkey


Please call Eileen O’Neil, the general manager at The Learning Channel at 240-662-2000 and let her know what you think about the show "My Baby Monkey" and then send an email to Jennifer_marburg@discovery.com about how disappointed you are about the show. Please ask them to give the other side of the story before many more monkey lives are ruined!



The show airs on TLC (The Learning Channel) Sunday night

A documentary airing on TLC looks at couples who adopt baby capuchins as children.




If you did not see the Good Morning America segment about My Monkey Baby, here is the link

Monkey Babies: Couples Treat Adopted Monkeys as Children, 'Monkids' - ABC News

Source: abcnews.go.com


http://abcnews.go.com/GMA/monkey-babies-couples-treat-adopted-monkids-children/story?id=8723105


Please write to GMA and tell them what you think about their story about the new show "My Monkey Baby"!

I guess they didn't notice how many of the monkeys in the show had NO TEETH or notice the junk food they were being fed, and they most certainly did not talk about the fact that these surrogate monkey children were stolen from their natural mothers! ABC knows better, David Muir has been to Jungle Friends! They need to do another story to undo the damage done by their segment this morning! Please tell them to contact sanctuaries and let us tell our stories! (Kari Bagnall)

This is important, please, take a minute to write a letter. Sanctuaries have already been contacted on how and where to purchase baby monkeys!!

Special Thanks to ABC Dancing with the Strars

Dancing with the Stars was going to using a chimpanzee on it's Oct. 6th show to predict the winner. However, thanks to may e-mail and one especially from Shirley McGreal from IPPL. Executive producer Conrad Green decided to re-cut the package they were to use on the show to remove any footage of the chimpanzee they filmed...! Proof that speaking out does work!!

It is as important now to , please, reach out to ABC to let them know that we appreciate the fact that the segment was pulled....

http://www.nt2099.com/J-ENT/news/american-entertainment/fourth-couple-eliminated-on-dancing-with-the-stars-the-results-show-tuesday-october-6-on-abc/

Here is a copy of the e-mail sent to ABC and their response.

On 10/6/09 8:56 AM, "Shirley McGreal"

Dear Mr. Green,
I hope you are not going to use a performing chimpanzee in your "Dancing with the Stars" show. I don't see any point. Promotion of primates in entertainment only encourages people to see them as objects of ridicule and encourages the primate pet craze which victimizes so many primates pulled from their mothers as babies and forced to live in human households or training camps and conform to human expectations, wear silly clothes, etc. until the owner gets sick of them or badly bitten and tries to dump them on over-filled under-funded sanctuaries.

Please don't exploit chimpanzees. Assuming you pay their "trainers," they are making money off the suffering of innocent animals.

Sincerely yours, Shirley McGreal

Dr. Shirley McGreal, OBE, Chairwoman

E-mail - smcgreal@ippl.org, Web: www.ippl.org Working to Protect All Primates Since 1973

Dear Shirley,

Thank you for your e-mail. We decided to use the chimpanzee for a package today and taped the package last week. While I didn't personally attend the shoot, I'm assured that throughout the shoot the chimpanzee seemed happy and well-treated. We have followed the network's broadcast standards guidelines in the setting up of this shoot and the process was overseen by the American Humane Association. We really have tried everything we can to ensure that we did this the right way and would never have proceeded if we thought that the animal was in distress or being ill-treated.

However, I wasn't aware of the information you have kindly provided about the way that chimpanzees are sometimes treated when trained for entertainment purposes. While I have no reason to believe that the chimp we used was treated in this way I do appreciate your point that showing a chimpanzee on our show may indirectly lead to other chimpanzees being ill-treated in the future. If I had been aware of the information you outlined below I wouldn't have proceeded with the shoot in the first place, so I've decided on balance to re-cut the package we use in tonight's show to remove any footage of the chimpanzee. While I can't undo the fact that we did shoot with a chimpanzee I will be sure we don't do this again in the future.

I hope this allays your concerns and I appreciate you getting in touch with me. We would never intentionally harm an animal in the process of making our show, and I hope you can continue to enjoy Dancing With the Stars in the future. I may send this e-mail to other people who have objected to the use of a chimpanzee on the show... I hope you don't mind. I'm rather pressed for time today and can't craft an individual response to everyone!

Yours sincerely

Conrad Green

Executive Producer

Dancing With the Stars








R&R October eNews



Project R&R Responds to Thai Vaccine Study

On September 24, 2009, results from an HIV vaccine clinical trial (known as the Thai Phase III HIV vaccine study or RV144) revealed a new experimental vaccine to be 31 percent effective in preventing HIV infection. Over 16,000 men and women participated in the trial, which was conducted in Thailand by the Thai Ministry of Public Health and sponsored by the U.S. Army Surgeon General in collaboration with the Department of Defense and the National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases.

This is welcome news, but according to Dr. Jarrod Bailey, Science Director of Project R&R, optimism should be guarded. Read more...





Great Ape Protection Act Update

70 Cosponsors Now on Bill

Thanks to supporters like you across the country who are contacting their representatives, the Great Ape Protection Act is now up to 70 cosponsors. The bill is currently in the House Energy and Commerce Committee.

Please call your representative and ask him/her to support H.R. 1326, the Great Ape Protection Act, by cosponsoring the bill. If your rep is already on board as a cosponsor, ask that s/he strongly supports it through to passage. Please also help us get even more cosponsors on board by asking at least two other constituents – your neighbors, friends, family – to contact their Reps as well.



Compassionate Living Raffle Winners are In!

Congratulations to the winners of our 2009 Compassionate Living Raffle, Dawn C. of Halifax, MA and Sandee G. of Chesterville, ME

We thank everyone who participated by buying or selling tickets, raising critical funds for our work to end animal testing and promote non-animal alternatives. Your efforts help prevent the needless suffering of millions of animals and lead to better science for humans.

You can continue to help us meet our year-end fundraising goals by donating here.



12th Anniversary/ 12ième anniversaire


Billy Jo - Donna Rae

October 21st marks the 12th year anniversary of the second group of chimpanzees to arrive at fauna. The very first Chimpanzees in the world with HIV virus to ever be released to Sanctuary; as well as being some of the very first Chimpanzees to be used for HIV research .

Le 21 octobre est le 12ième anniversaire du deuxième groupe de chimpanzés qui sont arrivés à Fauna. Les premiers chimpanzés au monde
atteint du virus du VIH à pouvoir vivre dans un sanctuaire; en plus d'être parmi les premiers chimpanzés à être utilisés pour la recherche en laboratoire sur le VIH.

Pablo, Pepper, Sue Ellen


Tuesday, October 6, 2009

Remembering Pablo/À la mémoire de Pablo

Pablo passed away at the very young age of 31 . 8 years has passed already and it seems like just yesterday that he was with us. Pablo like many started off life in a circus, he eventually became aggressive and was sent to a breeding facility, at age 11, he entered biomedical research and remaind there for the next 16 years. Despite all his hardships Pablo was very social with other chimpanzees, his good friends were Tom and Jeannie. Pablo was a gentle soul and he will continue to be greatly missed.
1970-2001
Pablo est décédé au jeune âge de 31 ans. Huit années sont passées depuis et on dirait qu'il était auprès de nous encore hier. Comme plusieurs, Pablo a commencé sa vie dans un cirque. Il devint aggressif et il fut envoyé dans un établissement destiné à la reproduction. À 11 ans, il fit son entrée dans un laboratoire de recherche biomédical ou il vécut pour les seizes prochaines années. Malgré toutes ses épreuves, Pablo était un être très sociable avec les autres chimpanzés. Ses bons amis étaient Tom et Jeannie. Pablo avait une âme charitable et il nous manque énormément.


Monday, October 5, 2009

Ever Changing Gardens / Jardins aux changements perpétuels

Here are all the new changes in the children's garden...
Voici tous les changements récents dans le jardin des enfants...



Our tin man / Notre homme de fer-blanc




Hand made checkers set / Jeu d'échecs fait à la main

Snack Corner / Coin collation


Edible Plant Garden /Le jardin des plantes comestibles





Plants /Flowers that have animal names
Plantes / Fleurs ayant des noms d'animaux



Kermit our amazing frog made of flower pots!!
Kermit notre superbe grenouille fait de pots de fleurs!!

Friday, October 2, 2009

Regis in Time Square!! Regis sur Time Square!!



Regis has been appearing on a Time Square bill board as part of a NEAVS press release

The time stamp on this one reads: Sept 9 at 16:21:40; it ran several other times too.

How cool is that!!
Regis a été vu sur le panneau publicitaire du Time Square lors d'un communiqué de presse de NEAVS.
L'heure indique : le 9 septembre à 16:21:40. Il y a eu plusieurs parutions.
Cool hein?

World Animal Day - 1st Time in Quebec

Sunday, October 4, 2009 – In Front of Parliament

World Animal Day – For the 1st Time in Quebec


12:30pm Assembly in front of Parliament, Quebec City

1:00pm-1:45pm Distribution of white balloons. Important: See note below

1:45pm A word from the organizer before the commencement of the march.

2:00pm Departure to rue Grande Allée and rue Cartier and return by rue St-Jean

4:30pm End of event

Following the march there will be a release of white doves on a background of acoustic music to commemorate all the animals killed with cruelty. A petition will be distributed for signature until 4:30pm.

Amongst other prominent people, the Honorable Marlene Jennings, Member of Parliament for Notre-Dame-de-Grâce – Lachine will walk with us on this important day.

The purpose of this march is to ask our government to make radical changes to the legislation on cruelty to animals, which dates back to 1892. The current law still considers animals as property and objects. It makes it very difficult to get justice and allows animal abusers to continue their practice of killing innocent beings by brutal and barbaric methods. The present law allows healthy, innocent animals to be put into shelters and pounds. When placed in kill-pounds, they will suffer severely and be exposed to horrendous torture, including a slow death in the gas chambers.


The animals feel pain just like we do. They are our companions and help us go through life with dignity. We owe them so much. Let us be the voice for the voiceless. Thank you for your presence.

**Animals are welcome and please do not forget water and waste bags. **


Important Notes:

The doves will be released and returned home after the march.

To protect our environment, please do not release the balloons. You can take them home or they will be picked up by someone at the end of the march.

http://www.lesevenementsarsenik.com/jmdaqc.html or www.lesevenementsarsenik.com





Dimanche le 4 OCTOBRE 2009 - Devant le Parlement.

World Animal Day - La première fois à Québec

Rassemblement de 12h30 à 13h45 avec distribution de ballons blancs. Suivra une marche pacifique se terminant par une envolée de colombes sur une musique acoustique de Martin Carré à la mémoire des animaux morts dans la cruauté. NB: Les colombes reviennent à leur demeure.

Des personnalitées réputées dont Mme Marlene Jennings marcheront avec nous en cette importante journée.

Le but de cette marche est pour demander au gouvernement de renforcir la législation sur la cruauté envers les animaux. Datant de 1892, la loi actuelle considère les animaux comme des biens. La loi existante permet le placement des animaux sains et innocents dans les abris et des fourrières. Quand placé aux fourrières, ils souffriront sévèrement et seront exposés à la torture affreuse, y compris une mort lente dans les chambres à gaz.

Apportez vos pancartes pour protester contre des chambres à gaz, les usines à chiots, animaux de ferme, plumes ou pour demander que des modifications radicales soient apportées aux lois animales existantes.

Venez avec votre animal de compagnie si vous le désirez. (N'oubliez pas l'eau et les sacs pour leur besoins.)


Les animaux ressentent la souffrance comme nous tous. Ils sont nos compagnons, ils nous aident à traverser les épreuves. Nous leur devons beaucoup.


Soyez la voix qu’ils n’ont pas. Merci d'être présent.

http://www.lesevenementsarsenik.com/jmdaqc.html ou http://www.lesevenementsarsenik.com/

Volunteers

As you all know Fauna has yearly volunteers that come and spend time to help out where ever it may be needed...This past month we had the opportunity of welcoming Jim Sibley and Amanda Bradley back to the sanctuary as well as Taylor from Animal Alliance...They were all amazing and managed to get many task completed, from putting up shelving for our office, helping Richard move and plant trees, as well as, spend time helping out in the chimp house with night time packages, smoothies, tea, trolleys and much more.



Taylor and Kathleen making enrichment

It is always a pleasure to have them around and we are already looking forward to next year!!!

Thanks a bunch guys!!
Sincerely the Fauna Team

Toby enjoying the view!! Toby observe le paysage!



Toby watching over all the Fauna workers!! he was quite happy to see how excited I was to see him all the way up there...more photos to come....sorry, the others are on a real camera with film!!
Toby qui surveille tous les employés de Fauna!! Il était heureux de me voir si excitée lorsque je l'ai aperçu tout en haut. D'autres photos bientôt! Désolée! Elles sont toutes sur un appareil avec une pellicule!

Frank Noelker's photographs of the Fauna Chimpanzees

Beautiful and often unsettling, Frank Noelker's photographs of animals have enthralled viewers for over 20 years. Presented in this exhibition is a retrospective of images from his Captive Beauty and Portraits series. For Captive Beauty, Noelker traveled to zoos in many parts of the world to capture images of the animals that are housed there. His Portraits series frames the noble faces of chimpanzees that are retired from biomedical research, the entertainment industry and the pet trade. They now live out their lives at the Fauna Foundation sanctuary in Montreal, Canada and the Center for Great Apes, Wauchula, Florida, where these photographs were made. Noelker's large scale, closely framed, formal portraits of these creatures show us their humanity and the independent spirit still within them.


Beauty, captivity clash in zoo photographs

By David Bonetti

POST-DISPATCH VISUAL ARTS CRITIC


In Doug Aitken's video projection "migration (empire) — linear version" at the St. Louis Art Museum, we see animals in motel rooms. In Frank Noelker's "Of Animals" at the Sheldon, we see animals in cages. In both cases, the habitation is uneasy.

The fate of wild animals in captivity is a concern in art as well as society at large.

In the exhibition at the Sheldon, Frank Noelker, an art professor at the University of Connecticut who grew up in St. Louis, shows a powerful series of photographs of animals in zoos. He took the photographs in the late '90s, visiting more than 300 zoos.

In the work, he makes it clear that although contemporary zoos strive to create comfortable environments for their charges, the animals are, for the most part, alienated and bored, if not depressed in captivity.


That doesn't mean that they are not beautiful. The disconnect between their natural beauty and their cramped quarters adds to the images' poignancy.

In an essay in "Captive Beauty," a book of Noelker's zoo photography, Nigel Rothfels writes that the importance of Noelker's images rests in the fact that they highlight the human environment within which animals in zoos live. Rothfels, a zoo historian, points out that most zoo photography tries to hide the man-made environment and make the animals look as if they are living in the wild.

The inadequacy of cosmetic attempts to mask the fact that the animals inhabit concrete pens is shown repeatedly in Noelker's images. The painting of the blue sky and the sere African plain in a pen at a Washington, D.C., zoo might fool a visitor, but it's unlikely that it fools the giraffe that awkwardly occupies it.

Even more absurd is the painted backdrop of a big sky and ocean in a Texas zoo for a bird that in nature would be flying through it. If it tried it here, it would batter itself against a concrete wall.

Noelker considers himself a concerned photographer, which means he wants to make the viewer see and think the way he does about his subject. His work raises questions about freedom and autonomy and interspecies politics.

In his essay, Rothfels points out that humans have kept exotic animals since ancient times and that modern zoos are historically perhaps the most sensitive to animals' needs. Still, it is clear that zoos exist to satisfy a human desire at odds with that of the inmates.


The fact that many of the animals kept in them would not survive in the wild today, that their natural habitat has been destroyed or fatally compromised, only complicates matters.

The Sheldon is also showing a series of portraits of chimpanzees rescued or retired from laboratories or "roadside" zoos and now living in refuges. These images, which Noelker made during the first half of this decade, are even more harrowing than the zoo photographs. We can't help but relate to chimpanzees, which seem human to us.

Noelker accentuates the connection by photographing at large scale the faces of his subjects, emphasizing their individual personalities. These are true portraits, not wildlife photographs.

The stories of the subjects' lives are attached to each image. These creatures, which might remind you of an elderly relative, spent years in research laboratories, where they repeatedly underwent horrific tests.

The story of Rachel is typical. Raised as a pet, she was deposited at a lab when she was 3 years old. For the next 11 years, she lived in isolation and was anesthetized 235 times. She was given 39 punch liver biopsies and underwent surgery in a test for Nutrasweet.

"She fell into an extended period of depression and was treated repeatedly for rashes and sores on her neck and wrists inflicted on herself during anxiety attacks," the text reads. "She also bites all of her nails to the quick, rubbing them until there is nothing left."

Today, Rachel is a retiree at the Fauna Foundation in Montreal. In her portrait, she looks totally withdrawn into herself.

Of course, reading the feelings of animals from their "portraits" is not a science. If we have a hard time reading the feelings of human beings in their representations, how can we even begin to determine animals' psychological states? Still, these portraits of chimpanzees suggest that their subjects have a long way yet to go to achieve healing.

BERLIN'S BUILDINGS

In its gallery devoted to architecture, the Sheldon is showing a photographic portrait of Berlin through its buildings. They were taken in 2006-2007 by Amy Metzger while she was on a fellowship there. Metzger is in medical school at Washington University.

Berlin has been ideologically one of the most contested sites in Europe, if not the world, during the past 100 years. Metzger intentionally photographs buildings that represent ideological moments. From the Berlin Cathedral, built on commission of the Kaiser, to Sony headquarters in a rebuilt Potsdamer Platz, all the eras from empire to global capitalism are represented here.

The postwar modernism of West Berlin faces off the socialist classicism of East Berlin. The functional modernism of the Third Reich — the Tempelhof Airport and the Olympic Stadium — is not overlooked.

Metzger has a particularly telling series of images of memorials and monuments, from the Berlin Airlift Memorial in the West and the Soviet Memorial in Treptower Park in the East to the recent Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe.

Aesthetically, Metzger's black and white images are classic examples of modernism. They purport to be objective, without editorializing on the part of the photographer, but Metzger does not deny her eye for structure and composition. The blank overcast skies are reminiscent of the work of Bernd and Hilla Becher, which has influenced Metzger's work as it has influenced an entire generation of contemporary photographers.



All prints found on our order form are all portraits taken by Frank Noelker.....Special thanks goes out to Frank for allowing us to use and distribute his photographs of the Chimpanzees here at Fauna!!

More great gifts for the Fauna Chimpanzees













Diane Denis & Samuel Bernier!!














Karen, Bruce, Warren & Tracey Pratte





























Sonia Boulet & Roger Roy














Julia DrawBell !














Denielle Duncan, Patty Duncan, Caroline Hanman & Terri Daniels !!!

Denielle has been a long time monthly donor, and along with all the amazing gifts she came and spent a weekend to volunteer with her Daughter Patty. They helped out in the chimp house and were a pleasure to have around....
























Caroline Mathieu one of fauna's newest volunteers !

James Brooks does it again!! Un autre de James Brooks!

Please, check out the following video of James Brooks doing a presentation about great apes. Enjoy!!
Allez voir le vidéo de James Brooks qui fait une présentation à propos des grands singes.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?

Below you will also find the like to his site 1000 class rooms... Sur le site ci-dessous vous trouverez d'autres présentations semblables sur son site 1000 class rooms.

http://1000classrooms.org/News.html

Chimpanzees Suffer Psychologically Like Humans

Dear NEAVS Board, Project R&R Advisory Board, Friends and Supporters:

I wanted to let you know about the press release which went out nationwide yesterday regarding NEAVS/Project R&R’s latest paper, Developmental Context Effects on Bicultural Post-Trauma Self Repair in Chimpanzees: http://www.releasechimps.org/2009/09/09/chimpanzees-suffer-psychologically-like-humans/.

I co-authored this study along with psychologist G.A. Bradshaw, Ph.D., Ph.D., Lorin Lindner, Ph.D., NEAVS vice president, and Gloria Grow, Fauna sanctuary director and Project R&R co-chair. Published in the September issue, Vol 45(5), of the American Psychological Association journal Developmental Psychology, the paper examines the case histories of Billy Jo, Tom, and Regis – all of whom, as you know, were used in research before being rescued into sanctuary by Fauna. The paper underscores the ethical implications of cross-fostering nonhuman primates and their use in research.

Along with our previous psychology paper, Building an Inner Sanctuary: Complex PTSD in Chimpanzees, published in the Journal of Trauma and Dissociation, 9(1), 9-34, this study provides clear evidence of how cruel and indefensible laboratory confinement and use is and how it leads to severe and lasting emotional trauma – documentation that is critical in our case to lawmakers and the public.

Post-Trauma Self Repair is our latest installment to our growing body of work that challenges the science, ethics, and economics that surround the use of chimpanzees in research. Currently we are working on an economic paper as well as one on their use in hepatitis research – the main area in which researchers continue to try to justify the use of chimpanzees. For the sake of your time, I have attached an abstract of the current paper.

I thank each of you for your invaluable contributions to our work, and for helping us hasten the day when all chimpanzees have been released from U.S. laboratories into sanctuary. As always, please don’t hesitate to contact me with any questions or comments.

Sincerely,

Theo signature casual.TIF

Theodora Capaldo, Ed.D.

President
New England Anti-Vivisection Society
Project R&R: Release and Restitution for Chimpanzees in U.S. Laboratories



BOSTON, Sept. 9 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ -- A recent study documents the severe emotional trauma chimpanzees suffer as a result of laboratory use and confinement. “Developmental Context Effects on Bicultural Post-Trauma Self Repair in Chimpanzees” was published in the September issue, Vol. 45 (5), of the American Psychological Association journal Developmental Psychology.

Psychologists G.A. Bradshaw, Ph.D., Ph.D., Theodora Capaldo, Ed.D., Lorin Lindner, Ph.D., and Gloria Grow, Fauna sanctuary director, examined the case histories of three chimpanzees -- Billy Jo, Tom, and Regis -- all used in research before rescue into sanctuary. The study underscores the ethical implications of cross-fostering nonhuman primates and their use in research.

Says Dr. Capaldo, president of the New England Anti-Vivisection Society (NEAVS)/Project R&R: “A federal bill to end the use of chimpanzees in research (the Great Ape Protection Act, H.R. 1326) has been introduced. Studies like ours expose the reality of what it is like for approximately 1000 chimpanzees languishing in U.S. labs. Chimpanzee research must stop if we are to end the suffering caused by decisions -- both scientifically flawed and ethically unjustifiable -- to use them as living test tubes.”

Billy Jo lived like a human child from infancy to his teenage years when he was sent to a lab. He spent his next fourteen years alone in a 5’X5’X7’ cage, enduring hundreds of procedures. He was rescued into sanctuary at age 29 and died only 8 years later.

Tom’s family was killed in order to capture him in Africa. He spent decades in three different labs undergoing multiple procedures including 369 “knockdowns” -- anesthesia by dart gun. Every morning, Tom gags uncontrollably -- the result of repeated intubations.

Regis, born in a lab, was only 2 years old when he was treated for his first stress-related injury -- he had chewed his finger nail completely off. Regis, fearful if left alone, suffers severe anxiety attacks in which he nearly stops breathing.

The chimpanzees’ symptoms are consistent with traumatic stress, depression, and other psychological conditions. “Post-Trauma Self Repair in Chimpanzees” follows “Building an Inner Sanctuary: Complex PTSD in Chimpanzees” (published April 2008 in the Journal of Trauma and Dissociation), which represented the first time human psychiatric symptoms and diagnoses were applied to chimpanzees, demonstrating that psychological suffering crosses species lines. Together, the papers provide irrefutable arguments to the growing ethical imperative to end the use of chimpanzees in U.S. research.

CONTACT: Karen Smith, NEAVS, 617-523-6020, 617-413-0611, ksmith@neavs.org


Paper Summary

Developmental Context Effects on Bicultural Post-Trauma Self Repair in Chimpanzees


Bradshaw, G.A., Capaldo, T., Lindner, L., & Grow, G. (2009)Developmental Context Effects on Bicultural Post-Trauma Self Repair in Chimpanzees. Developmental Psychology, Vol. 45(5), 1376-1388

To examine, through clinical case studies, post-trauma self-repair of chimpanzees who now reside in sanctuary. Each of the chimpanzees -- Tom, Regis and Billy -- represented one of three developmental histories: born and reared for some time in the wild by his biological mother (Tom); born and reared in a lab in a peer group without adult chimpanzees (Regis); and reared by humans as a human (Billy). All were subsequently used as biomedical subjects.

Conclusions:

• Chimpanzees subjected to laboratory confinement and biomedical research and testing exhibit trauma-induced psychological symptoms.

• Cross-fostered chimpanzees also contend with an identity crisis and the enhanced vulnerability and compounded trauma this presents.

• Cross-fostered chimpanzees show symptoms of identity confusion and attachment disorder peculiar to their early developmental history:
- compromised ability to socialize with other chimpanzees;
- dominant behavioral traits reflective of human culture;
- a preference to socialize with humans rather than other chimpanzees; and
- symptoms consistent with a diagnosis of depression

• The study raises serious ethical implications for the practice of cross-fostering chimpanzees and for their use in laboratory research.